Monday, May 20, 2013

Ibn Battuta - Great Traveller Ever


 "To the world of today the men of medieval Christendom already seem remote and unfamiliar. Their names and deeds are recorded in our history-books, their monuments still adorn our cities, but our kinship with them is a thing unreal, which costs an effort of imagination. How much more must this apply to the great Islamic civilization, that stood over against medieval Europe, menacing its existence and yet linked to it by a hundred ties that even war and fear could not sever. Its monuments too abide, for those who may have the fortunate to visit them, but its men and manners are to most of us utterly unknown, or dimly conceived in the romantic image of the Arabian Nights. Even for the specialist it is difficult to reconstruct their lives and see them as they were. Histories and biographies there are in quantity, but the historians for all their picturesque details, seldom show the ability to select the essential and to give their figures that touch of the intimate which makes them live again for the reader. It is in this faculty that Ibn Battuta excels."

Thus begins the book, "Ibn Battuta, Travels in Asia andAfrica 1325-1354" published by Routledge and Kegan Paul (1).


Introduction

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad - Din, was born at Tangier, Morocco, on the 24th February 1304 C.E. (703 Hijra). He left Tangier on Thursday, 14th June, 1325 C.E. (2nd Rajab 725 A.H.), when he was twenty one years of age. His travels lasted for about thirty years, after which he returned to Fez, Morocco at the court of Sultan Abu 'Inan and dictated accounts of his journeys to Ibn Juzay. These are known as the famous Travels (Rihala) of Ibn Battuta. He died at Fez in 1369 C.E.

Ibn Battuta was the only medieval traveller who is known to have visited the lands of every Muslim ruler of his time. He also travelled in Ceylon (present Sri Lanka), China and Byzantium and South Russia. The mere extent of his travels is estimated at no less than 75,000 miles, a figure which is not likely to have been surpassed before the age of steam.


Travels

In the course of his first journey, Ibn Battuta travelled through Algiers, Tunis, Egypt, Palestine and Syria to Makkah. After visiting Iraq, Shiraz and Mesopotamia he once more returned to perform the Hajj at Makkah and remained there for three years. Then travelling to Jeddah he went to Yemen by sea, visited Aden andset sail for Mombasa, East Africa. After going up to Kulwa he came back to Oman and repeated pilgrimage to Makkah in 1332 C.E. via Hormuz, Siraf, Bahrain and Yamama. Subsequently he set out with the purpose of going to India, but on reaching Jeddah, he appears to have changed his mind (due perhaps to the unavailability of a ship bound for India), and revisited Cairo, Palestine and Syria, thereafter arriving at Aleya (Asia Minor) by sea and travelled across Anatolia and Sinope. He then crossed the Black Sea and after long wanderings he reached Constantinople through Southern Ukraine.

On his return, he visited Khurasan through Khawarism (Khiva) and having visited all the important cities such as Bukhara, Balkh, Herat, Tus, Mashhad and Nishapur, he crossed the Hindukush mountains via the 13,000 ft Khawak Pass into Afghanistan and passing through Ghani and Kabul entered India. After visiting Lahri (near modern Karachi), Sukkur, Multan, Sirsa and Hansi, he reached Delhi. For several years Ibn Battuta enjoyed the patronage of Sultan Mohammad Tughlaq, and was later sent as Sultan's envoy to China. Passing through Cental India and Malwa he took ship from Kambay for Goa, and after visiting many thriving ports along the Malabar coast he reached the Maldive Islands, from which he crossed to Ceylon. Continuing his journey, he landed on the Ma'bar (Coromandal) coast and once more returning to the Maldives he finally set sail for Bengal and visited Kamrup, Sylhet and Sonargaon (near Dhaka). Sailing along the Arakan coast he came to Sumatra and later landed at Canton via Malaya and Cambodia. In China he travelled northward to Peking through Hangchow. Retracing his steps he returned to Calicut and taking ship came to Dhafari and Muscat, and passing through Paris (Iran), Iraq, Syria, Palestine and Egypt made his seventh and last pilgrimage to Makkah in November 1348 C.E. and then returned to his home town of Fez. His travels did not end here - he later visited Muslim Spain and the lands of the Niger across the Sahara.

On his return to Fez, Ibn Battuta dictated the accounts ofhis travels to Ibn Juzay al-Kalbi (1321-1356 C.E.) at the court of Sultan Abu Inan (1348-1358 C.E). Ibn Juzay took three months to accomplish this work ,which he finished on 9th December 1355 C.E.



Ibn Battuta in Black Africa

Markus Wiener Pub, 1975 - Biography & Autobiography - 118 pages
"Ibn Battuta traveled to Black Africa twice: in 1331 to the East Coast and in 1351-1352 from Morocco
down the Sahara to the Niger. He reported about the wealthy, multicultural trading centers at the African East Coast, especially Mombasa and Kilwa. Ibn Battuta visited the legendary kingdom of Mali and its neighboring states during the area's period of prosperity from mining and trans-Saharan trade."--BOOK JACKET.

Ibn Battuta - The Forgotten Traveller


Ibn Battuta's sea voyages and references to shipping reveal that the Muslims completely dominated the maritime activity of the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Chinese waters. Also it is seen that though the Christian traders were subject to certain restrictions, most of the economic negotiations were transacted on the basis of equality and mutual respect.

Ibn Battuta, one of the most remarkable travellers of all time, visited China sixty years after Marco Polo and in fact travelled 75,000 miles, much more than Marco Polo. Yet Battuta is never mentioned in geography books used in Muslim countries, let alone those in the West. Ibn Battuta's  contribution to geography is unquestionably as great as that of any geographer yet the accounts of his travels are not easily accessible except to the specialist. The omission of reference to Ibn Battuta's contribution in geography books is not an isolated example. All great Musiims whether historians, doctors, astronomers, scientists or chemists suffer the same fate. One can understand why these great Muslims are ignored by the West. But the indifference of the Muslim governments is incomprehensible. In order to combat the inferiority complex that plagues the Muslim Ummah, we must rediscover the contributions of Muslims in  fields such as science, medicine, engineering, architecture and astronomy. This will encourage contemporary young Muslims to strive in these fields and not think that major success is beyond their reach.

References

1. Ibn Buttuta, Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1345, Published by Routledge and Kegan Paul (ISBN O 7100 9568 6)

2. The Introduction to the "Voyages of Ibn Battutah" by Vincent Monteil in The Islamic Review and Arab Affairs. March 1970: 30-37

Sunday, May 19, 2013

FisherMan

A fisherman or fisher is someone who captures fish and other animals from a body of water, or gathers shellfish.Worldwide, there are about 38 million commercial and subsistence fishermen and fish farmers.
The term can also be applied to recreational fishermen and may be used to describe both men and
women. Fishing has existed as a means of obtaining food since the Mesolithic period.























Source: Google

Sunday, March 10, 2013

Blue Lagoon Iceland


One of the most attractive visiting spots of Iceland is Blue Lagoon Iceland and Blue Lagoon geothermal spa. The steamy waters of the Blue Lagoon geothermal spa format lava as of its part. The spa is situated in a field of lava in Grindavik which is located in the Peninsula of the Reykjanes, in the southwestern part of Iceland.

The geothermal water starts 2,000 meters underneath the surface, where freshwater and seawater joins at greater temperatures. It is then bridled by means of boring gaps at a close-by geothermal force plant, Svartsengi, to make power and boiling hot water for adjacent groups. On its way to the surface, the water grabs silica and minerals, before developing at a calming 38°C (100°F). It is an ideal place for an unwinding and re-empowering bathe.

Why Blue Lagoon is Blue?

The geothermal water has one of a kind creation, highlighting three dynamic fixings - Silica, Algae & Minerals.
The blue shading originates from the silica and the way it reflects daylight. Amid summer there can likewise be an indication of green in the water. This is the aftereffect of the green growth, which reproduces immediately when presented to direct daylight.

 Be that as it may, and this may come as a shock to you, the water is really white. In the event that you empty it into a straightforward glass, it will dependably have smooth white shading. The sun basically makes it look blue!

Attractions of Blue Lagoon Iceland’ thermal spa
In 1976 a pool shaped at the site from the waste water of the geothermal force plant that had recently been constructed there. In 1981 individuals began washing in it after it’s indicated mending forces were promoted. In 1992 the Blue Lagoon organization was set up and the washing office was opened for people in general.

Visitors appreciate showering and unwinding in geothermal seawater, known for its constructive outcomes on the skin. A visit to the Blue Lagoon advances amicability between body, brain and soul, and empowers you drench away the anxieties of cutting edge life. Conde Nast Traveler as of late granted the Blue Lagoon as the best medicinal/warm spa and one of the main 10 spas on the planet. Notwithstanding showering in the tidal pond visitors have admittance to a sauna with a perspective of the tidal pond and a steam shower with white dividers that look like silica mud. Visitors can likewise remain underneath a waterfall for an empowering back rub.

Blue Lagoon offers both in-water and indoor spa medicines and back rub in light of the geothermal seawater's dynamic fixings: minerals, silica and green growth. The Exclusive Bath & Lounge is a possibility for visitors searching for more security. This oddity highlights private evolving rooms, a currently outlined parlor with a chimney and a saved indoor tidal pond. Light refreshments are served and certain dishes from Lava Restaurant can be requested. Magma Restaurant offers a special eating knowledge. It is incorporated with the bluff so it includes a characteristic magma divider, adding to its uniqueness. Blue Café is on the fundamental floor and offers speedy and solid decisions. Remote Internet Association is on the website. The Tidal pond Bar is situated pn the indoor washing territory and offers light refreshments, which can be helpfully credited to the passage armlet and paid upon flight. The Blue Lagoon shop offers the complete Blue Lagoon healthy skin line and chose blessing things and much more.

Full Description of Blue Lagoon

The warm waters are rich in minerals like silica and sulfur and washing in the Blue Lagoon is rumored to help a few individuals experiencing skin infections, for example, psoriasis. The water temperature in the washing and swimming zone of the tidal pond midpoints is 37-39 °C (99-102 °F). The Blue Lagoon likewise works an innovative work office to help discover cures for other skin infirmities utilizing the mineral-rich water.

The tidal pond is a man-made tidal pond, which is bolstered by the water yield of the adjacent geothermal force plant Svartsengi and is reestablished at regular intervals. Superheated water is vented from the beginning magma stream and used to run turbines that create power. In the wake of experiencing the turbines, the steam and boiling point water go through a warmth exchange to give warmth to a metropolitan water warming framework. At that point the water is encouraged into the tidal pond for recreational and restorative clients to bathe in. Iceland has a strict code of cleanliness and visitors are obliged to shower before washing.

The rich mineral substance is given by the underground geographical layers and pushed up to the surface of the heated water (at around 1.2 MPa (170 psi) weight and 240 °C (464 °F) temperature) utilized by the plant. In view of its mineral fixation, water can't be reused and must be discarded in the adjacent scene, a porous magma field that changes in thickness from 50 cm (20 in) to 1 m (3.3 ft). The silicate minerals are the essential driver of that water's smooth blue shade. After the minerals have framed a store, the water reinfiltrates the ground, yet the store renders it impermeable after some time, thus the need for the plant to persistently dive new lakes in the close-by magma field.

A little exploratory office is still unmistakable close to the plant, where the specialists made decantation tests to assess the pace of mineral statement, which is plainly a constraining element both to the plant's ratability and manageability. Consequently, geothermal vitality abuse in this area is not without natural effect.

The Blue Lagoon was utilized as the pit stop for the first leg of The Amazing Race 6. The Blue Lagoon was utilized for the warm spa scenes in the recording of Hostel: Part II. It was additionally demonstrated in the Incubus narrative Look Alive, when the band went to Iceland, and in addition in the fifth cycle of Britain's Next Top Model which utilized as photograph shoots area.

The Blue Lagoon is arranged near the world's first renewable methanol plant, which utilizes Carbon Recycling International's carbon dioxide to methanol fuel development.

Blue Lagoon Iceland sits on top of the Mid Atlantic Ridge - when you swim or simply unwind in the tidal pond, in fact you are swimming more than two unique landmasses. The mineral rich waters are presumed to help individuals experiencing psoriasis or other skin infections.
.Source : Google
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